open access


Purpose: The study assessed Tourism and Hospitality Students’ satisfaction with work-related learning (WRL) attachment using a two-stage extended model proposed by Taylor and Geldenhuys (2019). It also intends to determine if there are significant student satisfaction differences between males and females and between the students pursuing bachelor or diploma in Tourism and hospitality. Also, the study assessed if there is a moderation effect of a third variable (intermediate) on expectation and perception to students’ satisfaction.

Method: Data were collected from 488 students using a survey instrument at the onset and at the end of the attachment. Analysis of results was done using both SPSS 23 and R 4.0.3. The study also applied the Multi-Group Analysis-Partial Least Squares (MGA-PLS) analysis permutation to test students’ satisfaction.

Results: The research found no significant differences between males and females, and the students’ category (bachelor and diploma) on both Expectation-Satisfaction and Perception-Satisfaction relationship in model A. However, the study found significant differences between males and females in the perception-satisfaction relationship in Model B. The MGSA-PLS results revealed that male students have a positive and significant effect on the perception-satisfaction relationship as opposed to a negative and insignificant effect for females. The moderating effect test revealed that a third construct, INTER - Intermediate variable (a product of construct Perceptions and Expectation) has a positive impact on student satisfaction.

Implications: There is a need for collaboration between hospitality industry players and academics in curriculum design, so as to meet the demands of the industry.